China

 

History of the China

Beijing Flag
Flag

China is the third largest country in the world and the capital city is Beijing. It has a mysterious and beautiful land abundant in a variety of resources, plants, animals and minerals. The country enjoys its continental monsoon. The government is communist state and their official language is Mandarin Chinese, religion is atheist Confucianism, Buddhism and Taoism. Some are Islam, Catholic and Protestant.

China is proud of her people and among her four greatest inventions have contributed to the world are paper, gunpowder, printing and the compass. Among their distinctive arts and crafts which are unique, painting, calligraphy, operas, embroidery and martial arts.

China is the number one global tourism source market in terms of number of travels and money spent on international travel.

Some of the most famous tourist attractions in China are Great Wall of China, Silk Road, Hainan Island and UNESCO World Heritage sites.

Island groups of China

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For centuries China stood as a leading civilization, outpacing the rest of the world in the arts and sciences, but in the 19th and early 20th centuries, the country was beset by civil unrest, major famines, military defeats, and foreign occupation. After World War II, the Communists under MAO Zedong established an autocratic socialist system that, while ensuring China's sovereignty, imposed strict controls over everyday life and cost the lives of tens of millions of people. After 1978, his successor DENG Xiaoping and other leaders focused on market-oriented economic development and by 2000 output had quadrupled. For much of the population, living standards have improved dramatically and the room for personal choice has expanded, yet political controls remain tight.

  • Beihai - is a prefecture-level city in the south of Guangxi.
  • Beijing - is the capital of the People's Republic of China and one of the most populous cities in the world.
  • Boao - is a town located next to the eastern coastal city of Qionghai in Hainan Province of China.
  • Changchun - is the capital and largest city of Jilin province, located in the northeast of China.
  • Changsha - is the capital city of Hunan, in south central China, located on the lower reaches of Xiang River.
  • changzhou - is a prefecture level city in southern Jiangsu province of China.
  • Chaozhou - is a city in eastern Guangdong Province, China.
  • Chengdu - formerly transliterated Chengtu, is the capital of Sichuan province in Southwest China.
  • Chongqing - formerly romanized as Chungking, is a major city in central China and one of the five national central cities in China.
  • Dali - is the ancient capital of both the Bai kingdom Nanzhao.
  • Dalian - is a major city and seaport in the south of Liaoning province.
  • Dongguan - is a place that connects yesterday with the present and the future.
  • Dunhuang - is part of the prefecture-level city of Jiuquan.
  • Foshan - is the third largest manufacturing base in the Pearl River Delta.
  • Fuzhou - is located in the northeast coast of Fujian province.
  • Guangzhou - is the third largest Chinese city and southern China's largest city.
  • Guilin - is a prefecture-level city in the northeast of the Guangxi Region of China.
  • Guiyang - is the capital of Guizhou province of Southwest China.
  • Haikou - is the capital and most populous city of Hainan province of China.
  • Hangzhou - is located in northwestern Zhejiang province, at the southern end of the Grand Canal of China.
  • Harbin - is the largest economy in Heilongjiang province.
  • Hefei - is located 130 kilometres west of Nanjing in south-central Anhui.
  • Huangshan - is a prefecture level city in southern Anhui province of China.
  • Jinan - is known as the "City of Springs" because of the large number of natural artesian springs.
  • Jiuzhaigou - is a nature reserve and national park located in the north of Sichuan, China.
  • Kunming - is world famous for its flowers and flower-growing exports.
  • Lanzhou - is the capital and largest city of Gansu Province in Northwest China.
  • Lhasa - is one of the highest cities in the world.
  • Lijiang - a popular destination in Yunnan, considered a fairyland blessed with fresh air, clear streams and breathtaking snow mountains.
  • Meizhou - is a prefecture level city of eastern Guangdong province, in southern China.
  • Nanjing - is the second-largest commercial centre in the East China region after Shanghai.
  • Nanning - is the capital of the Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region in southern China.
  • Ningbo - also formerly written Ningpo, is a seaport city in the northeast of Zhejiang province of China.
  • Panyu - is a district of Guangzhou, the capital of Guangdong province in southern China.
  • Qingdao - is a major city in eastern Shandong Province, Eastern China.
  • Qinhuangdao - is a relatively small city by China standards. A host to expatriates and foreign tourists
  • Sanya - is one of the three prefecture-level cities of Hainan and the southernmost city on the Chinese island.
  • Shanghai - is the largest city by population in China and the largest city proper by population in the world.
  • Shantou - is one of the most important open-to-the-world harbors both in Guangdong and in China.
  • Shenyang - the largest city in Northeast China, the city was once known as Shengjing or Fengtian Prefecture.
  • Shenzhen - is one of the most populous cities in the China.
  • Shunde - is a district in the city of Foshan in the Pearl River Delta.
  • Suzhou - formerly romanized as Soochow, a major city in the southeast of Jiangsu Province in Eastern China.
  • Tianjin - is a metropolis in northern China and one of the five national central cities China.
  • Turpan - is an old city with a long history. also known as Turfan or Tulufan, is an oasis county-level city in Turpan Prefecture.
  • Urumqi - the capital of Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region in northwest China.
  • Wuhan - is the capital of Hubei province, and the most populous city in Central China.
  • Wuxi - is hot and humid in summer and chilly and damp in winter.
  • Xiamen - is a coastal city in Fujian Province in China. Xiamen is also known as Amoy.
  • Xian - One of the oldest cities in China. The capital of Shaanxi Province, and a sub-provincial city in China.
  • Yangshou -  is a county under the jurisdiction of Guilin City. Its seat is located in Yangshuo Town.
  • Yunnan - is situated in a mountainous area, with high elevations in the northwest and low elevations in the southeast.
  • Zhaoqing - is a famous historical city and a traffic nexus between the Pearl River Delta and Southwest China.
  • Zhengzhou - is the capital and largest city of Henan province in north central China.
  • Zhongshan - is situated in the Pearl River Delta Region of Guangdong Province.
  • Zhuhai - is also one of China's premier tourist destinations, being called the Chinese Riviera.

Culture

Chinese culture is one of the world's oldest cultures. The area in which the culture is dominant covers a large geographical region in eastern Asia with customs and traditions varying greatly between provinces, cities, and even towns.

Politics
The leadership of the Communist Party is stated in the Constitution of the People's Republic of China. State power within the People's Republic of China (PRC) is exercised through the Communist Party of China, the Central People's Government and their provincial and local counterparts. Under the dual leadership system, each local Bureau or office is under the coequal authority of the local leader and the leader of the corresponding office, bureau or ministry at the next higher level.

The PRC's population, geographical vastness, and social diversity frustrate attempts to rule from Beijing. Economic reform during the 1980s and the devolution of much central government decision making, combined with the strong interest of local Communist Party officials in enriching themselves, has made it increasingly difficult for the central government to assert its authority.

National Dress
Traditional Chinese clothing is broadly referred to as hanfu with many variations such as traditional Chinese academic dress. Depending on one's status in society, each social class had a different sense of fashion. Most Chinese men wore Chinese black cotton shoes, but wealthy higher class people would wear tough black leather shoes for formal occasions. Very rich and wealthy men would wear very bright, beautiful silk shoes sometimes having leather on the inside. Women would wear bright, silk coated Lotus shoes, with wealthy women practicing bound feet as a status symbol - a practice abolished in the early 20th century. Male shoes were mostly less elaborate than women's.

Folk Dances and Music
Representations of dance have been found in Chinese pottery as early as the Neolithic period where groups of people are depicted dancing in a line holding hands. The earliest Chinese word for "dance" written in the oracle bones is the character, a representation of a dancer holding oxtails in each hand performing an ancient dance. According to the Lüshi Chunqiu: "In former times, the people of the Getian clan would dance in pairs [or threes] with oxtails in hand, stamping their feet and singing eight stanzas." Primitive dance in ancient China was also associated with sorcery and shamanic rituals. An early shape of the Chinese character for sorcerer, represented dancing shamans or their sleeves, wu therefore described someone who danced as a mean of communication between gods and men, There are many mentions of dances by shamans and sorcerers in ancient records, for example, the performance of rain dance at times of drought.

Economy
China's economy during the last quarter century has changed from a centrally planned system that was largely closed to international trade to a more market-oriented economy that has a rapidly growing private sector and is a major player in the global economy. Reforms started in the late 1970s with the phasing out of collectivized agriculture, and expanded to include the gradual liberalization of prices, fiscal decentralization, increased autonomy for state enterprises, the foundation of a diversified banking system, the development of stock markets, the rapid growth of the non-state sector, and the opening to foreign trade and investment. China has generally implemented reforms in a gradualist or piecemeal fashion. The process continues with key moves in 2005 including the sale of equity in China's largest state banks to foreign investors and refinements in foreign exchange and bond markets. The restructuring of the economy and resulting efficiency gains have contributed to a more than tenfold increase in GDP since 1978. Measured on a purchasing power parity (PPP) basis, China in 2005 stood as the second-largest economy in the world after the US, although in per capita terms the country is still lower middle-income and 150 million Chinese fall below international poverty lines. Economic development has generally been more rapid in coastal provinces than in the interior, and there are large disparities in per capita income between regions. The government has struggled to: (a) sustain adequate job growth for tens of millions of workers laid off from state-owned enterprises, migrants, and new entrants to the work force; (b) reduce corruption and other economic crimes; and (c) contain environmental damage and social strife related to the economy's rapid transformation. From 100 to 150 million surplus rural workers are adrift between the villages and the cities, many subsisting through part-time, low-paying jobs. One demographic consequence of the "one child" policy is that China is now one of the most rapidly aging countries in the world.

Climate

China Climate
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The climate in China differs from region to region because of the country's highly complex topography. China's climate is mainly dominated by dry seasons and wet monsoons, which lead to pronounced temperature differences between winter and summer. In the winter, northern winds coming from high-latitude areas are cold and dry; in summer, southern winds from coastal areas at lower latitudes are warm and moist.


Extremely diverse tropical in south to subarctic in north.


Public Holidays

China Public Holidays
New Year’s Day January 01
Chinese New Year 1st day of 1st lunar month
Qingming Festival 5th solar term (April 4 or April 5)
Labour Day May 1
Dragon Boat Festival 5th day of 5th lunar month
Mid-Autumn Festival 15th day of 8th lunar month
National Day October 1

Each year's holidays are announced about three weeks before the start of the year by the General Office of the State Council. A notable feature of mainland Chinese holidays is that weekends are usually swapped with the weekdays next to the actual holiday to create a longer vacation period.

Travel Advisory

There is no nationwide advisory in effect for China, exercise normal security precautions.